- 1941-1948 (Creation)
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The Retreat began cardiazol convulsion therapy in October 1938 following favourable reports of the treatment at the Annual Meeting of the Medico Psychological Association in July 1938.
However in 1940 Retreat doctors tried a different method of inducing convulsions by use of an electrical apparatus.
In the first two years of using electroconvulsive therapy, between 1940 and 1942, the Retreat treated 142 patients, suffering from melancholia, schizophrenia, mania, neurosis and other conditions.